Insomnia can be caused by various reasons: neuroses, nervous and mental illnesses, an emotional day, overwork, etc. A person cannot always cope with insomnia, therefore, resorts to the help of sleeping pills and sedatives. They regulate the functions of the central nervous system, including sleep. Antipsychotics have sedative and antiseptic properties. Tranquilizers, due to their calming effect, weaken the manifestations of neuroses.
Barbiturates. Derivatives of barbituric acid have a hypnotic effect. Barbiturates vary in duration of action: barbital, sodium barbital, phenobarbital (luminal) have a long-term effect ; barmamil , sodium ethaminal ( nembutal ), cyclobarbital have an average duration of action ; short-acting in hexobarbital .
The choice of barbiturate depends on the symptoms of the patient with insomnia: if he falls asleep easily and wakes up early, then a long-acting drug is prescribed. If the patient has a problem only in falling asleep, and sleep is continuous, then short-acting barbiturates are prescribed.
Long-acting barbiturates are excreted by the kidneys, while short-acting barbiturates are destroyed in the liver, therefore, in case of liver disease, the use of short-acting barbiturates is contraindicated. Long-term use of barbiturates is addictive. In this sense, they can be equated with drugs. It is dangerous for pregnant women to use this drug. it easily crosses the placenta and negatively affects the development of the fetus.
To create hypnotics, the following drugs were synthesized:
- Tetridine ( Benedorm ). Low toxicity , almost non -addictive in hypnotic doses. It is taken for nervous disorders and various types of insomnia.
- Noxiron . The mostly prescribed for neurotic conditions. After 15-30 minutes of using the drug, sleep occurs and lasts 6-8 hours. It is addictive with prolonged use.
- Chloral hydrate. It is prescribed as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug for eclampsia, tetanus and spasmophilia. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is addictive.
- Carbromal (adaline). Used for neurasthenia as a sedative and moderately hypnotic, an hour before bedtime. Contraindication – bromism .
- Bromized (bromural). Has the same effect as carbromal . Used for insomnia and nervous excitement. As a sleeping pill, it is taken 30-40 minutes before bedtime.
- Sodium bromide. Used for neurasthenia, irritability, insomnia, epilepsy, chorea. Long-term use can cause bromism : runny nose, cough, rash, general weakness.
- Rhizome with valerian roots. Reduces excitability and has a moderate antispasmodic effect. It is also used for insomnia.
- Motherwort herb. It is taken as an infusion or extract as a sedative.
- Corvalol. Applied with increased irritability, tachycardia, insomnia, neuroses, intestinal spasms.
- Thioridazine ( sonapaks , Meller ). Used for schizophrenia, neuroses, anxiety. It is a neuroleptic. Contraindications: allergies, coma, glaucoma.
- Meprotan ( andaxin , meprobamate ). It is a tranquilizer. Calms the central nervous system, enhances the effect of sleeping pills. Do not use while driving or during work requiring a quick response.
- Chlordiazepoxide ( Elenium , Librium ). It is used for neuroses, mental illnesses and for premedication in surgery.
- Diazepam (seduxen). Calms the central nervous system, has a relaxing effect.
- Oxazepam (tazepam). It is similar in function to seduxen and elenium. It is used for neuroses accompanied by anxiety and insomnia.
- Nitrazepam ( eunoktin , rader ). Reduces emotional excitability, eliminates insomnia. Sleep occurs within 20-45 minutes after using the drug and lasts 6-8 hours.
- Oxylidine . Depressant. Used for neuroses, insomnia, psychopathy.
- Trioxazine . Tranquilizer. Calms the central nervous system. Prescribed for neuroses, insomnia, irritability, fatigue.
- Fruticin . The drug is well tolerated and has a calming effect.
- Gindarin . Tranquilizer. Used for neurasthenia, insomnia.
A hypnotic substance is naturally formed in the human body. A similar substance was isolated from the blood of a sleeping rabbit. On its basis, they will try to create hypnotics free of side effects.