Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a dangerous disease that is manifested by night snoring and periodic pauses in breathing during sleep . The danger of the disease lies in the fact that it negatively affects all systems and organs, accelerates the development of cardiovascular and other diseases, threatens with a high risk of heart attack, stroke and sudden death.
Periodic attacks of sleep apnea entail increasing hypoxemia – a decrease in oxygen pressure in the blood to 70 mm. Hg _ and below. In severe apnea, if this value reaches 20 mm. rt. Art., death occurs.
How does hypoxemia manifest itself?
Clinical symptoms of hypoxemia may be early or late. Early ones reflect compensation from the cardiovascular system, that is, its attempts to adapt to this violation: heart palpitations, arterial hypertension and pallor of the skin.
Late clinical signs of oxygen deficiency indicate decompensation of the cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems – the appearance of serious malfunctions in their work. The patient develops a bluish tint to the skin, clammy sweat, motor and mental restlessness or lethargy. Neurological disorders occur when oxygen pressure is below 45 mm Hg. Art.
Oxygen starvation in newborns
Newborns in a dream also sometimes have respiratory rhythm disturbances and short-term apnea. In mild cases, the pause lasts from 10 to 15 seconds, and then the child begins to breathe on his own. In more severe situations, breathing is absent for more than 20 seconds, which is very dangerous for the life of the baby.
In severe cases, signs of sleep apnea in children are cyanosis of the skin, lips and nails; these symptoms are associated with a deterioration in cardiac activity. Repeated prolonged episodes of sleep apnea lead to mental retardation. The disorder threatens to increase the risk of sudden neonatal death syndrome, and therefore requires immediate treatment.
How to deal with hypoxemia
Hypoxemia is treatable and necessary because the condition is far from harmless.
A premature baby should be kept under observation in the intensive care unit. To maintain his breathing, a resuscitation bag or mask is used, sometimes artificial ventilation of the lungs is carried out. Adult patients are offered CPAP treatment.
Prisma CPAP machines are currently being developed Line from the new line of Weinmann , Germany. Their use allows the most effective and comfortable treatment of the entire spectrum of respiratory disorders in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.