Hypoxemia (oxygen deficiency) as a consequence of sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a dangerous disease that is manifested by nighttime snoring and periodic pauses in breathing during sleep . The danger of the disease lies in the fact that it negatively affects all systems and organs, accelerates the development of cardiovascular and other diseases, threatens with a high risk of heart attack, stroke and sudden death.

Check out the video, which clearly shows the mechanism of snoring and sleep apnea.

A sign of respiratory failure that occurs during episodes of sleep apnea is hypoventilation of the lungs, a condition in which too little air passes through the respiratory system during each inhalation and exhalation.

Hypoventilation results in hypercapnia and hypoxemia. What it is? During sleep apnea, there is a decrease in the delivery of oxygen to the alveoli of the lungs and a decrease in the evacuation of carbon dioxide from them. At the same time, the delivery of carbon dioxide to the lungs from organs and tissues does not stop. As a result, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood increases (hypercapnia), and the oxygen content decreases significantly (hypoxemia).

Arterial hypoxemia, which is caused by cyclic episodes of obstructive sleep apnea, is characterized by a pronounced decrease in oxygen pressure in arterial blood. With prolonged apnea, saturation (the degree of blood oxygen saturation) can fall below 60%, and then tissue hypoxia develops (oxygen starvation of cells). After apnea in the phase of hyperventilation (increased breathing), saturation is restored to 95-99%.

It is arterial hypoxemia that is the trigger in the appearance of many complications of sleep apnea :

  • early development of atherosclerosis, since a lack of oxygen causes damage to the vascular wall;
  • increased blood pressure due to the release of stress hormones: sleep apnea is characterized by nocturnal or morning hypertension, which is difficult to treat with drugs;
  • the appearance of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia, which is associated with excessive stimulation of the myocardium during sleep apnea;
  • occurrence and progression of heart failure.

In the treatment of apnea, there is a decrease in pressure, sleep is normalized, the heart rhythm is restored, and signs of ischemia on the ECG are eliminated. The main method of combating the disease is CPAP therapy.

Prisma CPAP machines are currently being developed Line from the new line of Weinmann , Germany. Their use allows the most effective and comfortable treatment of the entire spectrum of respiratory disorders in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

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