Depression and sleep disorders related – this conclusion was made by researchers from USA. They found molecular genetic pathways that are involved in the development of both major depressive disorder and insomnia as well also identified one specific gene, which acts as a link between them. Read more about the work says in article published at Science Advances .
Behavioral disturbances and sleep disorders are often combined with each other. a friend. For example, major depressive disorder ( major depressive disorder , MDD) is almost always accompanied by problems with sleep and shift in his rhythms as well total sleep deprivation can be used in as a temporary antidepressant.
AT Some large-scale transcriptome assays have already found many molecular correlates that are common to sleep, emotional or depression. AT the number of traits studied even included the regulation of circadian rhythms. None however, it remained unclear which gene aggregates are involved here and how in depending on they are coordinated by the work of numerous neural networks located in different parts of the brain and causing behavior.
To find gene networks related to different behavioral functions, researchers led by Martha Vitaters ( Martha Vitaterna ), professors of the Center for Sleep Biology and circadian rhythms in Northwestern University, investigated 20 categories of phenotypes that included 283 cognitive, emotional and doubtful characteristics. Their singled out in populations of 129 mice with deprivation of sleep and compared with genetic groups from 2458 markers in four areas of the brain, key to controlling sleep and emotions (frontal cortex, hippocampus , thalamus and hypothalamus).
Thanks to this, researchers were able to identify the network of transcriptomes responsible for one or another type of function, including the nature of sleep, and they thereby created the basis for studying how these functional networks of genes can change in a major depressive disorder.Multiple connections between sleep and emotional manifestations showed up like on single gene level and on level of the whole gene network.
In addition, scientists used publicly available transcriptomic data sets obtained from people with major depressive disorder, and compared them with what you found in mouse models of deprivation. It turned out that some those same gene patterns, specifically for the cortex, are involved and with M DD in people and with complete sleep deprivation mice. Moreover, the deprivation of sleep and depression influenced gene expression in these networks are the opposite, potentially explaining the antidepressant effects of insomnia.
Moreover, researchers have identified a particular gene network of avisyaschih from neuron activity – regulators of circadian rhythm and production of cyclic adenosine monophosphates ( cAMP ). As it turned out, they are the most sensitive and react as early as possible to failures, thereby providing a mechanical basis, confirming the relationship of sleep and depressed. Of their numbers even managed to single out one – Arc gene , which directly controls the activity of this network (launches her) and becomes the “missing link” that binds the emotional sphere and sleep.
Scientists believe that their The findings complement the understanding of the molecular bases underlying basis of the interaction of doubtful regulation and affective disorders, and hope that Based on this, it will be possible to develop more effective means of combating depressed and sleep disorders.
Meanwhile not so long ago, researchers found a specific type of neuron responsible for sleep as well also determined that depression can adversely affect the integrity of the white matter of the brain.
Eating disorders due to sleep problems
Eating disorders due to sleep problems are characterized by a violation of the diet (food at night).
Although it is not as common as sleepwalking, nocturnal eating disorders may occur during a sleepwalking episode. People suffering from this disorder eat without waking up. They can go into the kitchen and start cooking (later they may not even remember). If attacks of this kind of disorder occur quite often, then a person may find weight gain or increased susceptibility to the development of type 2 diabetes.
There is a similar disorder called night eating syndrome. Those suffering from this syndrome eat at night, being fully conscious; perhaps due to inability to fall asleep without first having eaten anything.
Symptoms of nocturnal eating behavior include the following and can last more than two months:
- Bad appetite or lack of it at breakfast.
- Eating more food after dinner than at dinner.
- Eating half a day’s food after dinner.
- Frequent awakening due to the need to eat something.
An eating disorder due to sleep problems and nocturnal eating behavior syndrome are different in that in the second, people eat while conscious. However, disorders have much in common, as they are associated with sleep problems and eating disorders. Both the first and second can affect the human diet, cause shame and guilt, depression and excess weight.
Who is predisposed to eating disorder?
Both men and women are equally predisposed to this disorder, but it is still more common in women. 10% – 15% of people with eating disorders suffer from eating disorders due to sleep problems. Most of these people are dieting during the daytime, as a result of which they are constantly hungry and more vulnerable to the temptation to eat (control is dulled by sleep). In some cases, an eating disorder is associated with alcoholism, drug abuse and other sleep disorders.
How is an eating disorder treated?
Treatment begins with a clinical examination. May be needed hospitalization in a hospital where doctors will monitor brain activity during sleep throughout the night. In some cases, medications can help. However, care should be taken to avoid sleeping pills, as it can increase disorientation in time and space, which can even lead to injury. Additional treatments include stress and anxiety. Examples of such methods include stress management courses, self-confidence training, counseling, and alcohol and caffeine restriction.