There are a number of diseases in which in 30-50% of cases, patients have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (sleep apnea, sleep apnea disease). These diseases are:
- Obesity grade 2 and higher.
- Arterial hypertension of 2 degrees and higher (especially at night, morning and poorly responding to treatment).
- Cardiac bradyarrhythmias at night (arrhythmias with a slowing heart rate).
- Heart failure grade 2 or higher.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of severe course.
- Respiratory failure grade 2 or higher.
- Pulmonary heart.
- Metabolic syndrome.
- Pickwick syndrome.
- Hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function).
Among the reasons that cause sleep apnea , in the first place are obesity, tonsil hypertrophy, difficulty in nasal breathing, excessive soft palate, retro- and micrognathia (features of the structure of the lower jaw).
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is quite high and amounts to 5-7% of the total population over 30 years old. Sleep apnea in severe form occurs in 1-2% of individuals from this group. These indicators are comparable to the prevalence of bronchial asthma.
Sleep apnea is manifested by the cessation of the nasal-oral air flow for 10 seconds or more with persisting respiratory efforts, which is due to the collapse of the airways at the level of the pharynx. In simpler terms, the criterion for sleep apnea is the stopping of breathing during sleep for 10 or more seconds. At the same time, if you look at the sleeping person, you can see that he is trying to take breaths, but he does not succeed. With incomplete obstruction (blockage) of the airways, hypopnea can be observed – respiratory disorders characterized by a partial decrease in the nasal-oral flow in combination with a drop in blood oxygen saturation by at least 3%.
Sleep apnea is classified by severity based on the Apnea / Hypopnea Index per hour. Additionally, the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is assessed:
- an indicator of a decrease in blood oxygen saturation (desaturation) against the background of episodes of apnea / hypopnea,
- the degree of destructuring of night sleep,
- cardiovascular complications associated with breathing disorders (myocardial ischemia, rhythm and conduction disturbances, arterial hypertension).
Sleep apnea is currently treatable, depending on a combination of causes and severity of the disorder. For uncomplicated snoring and mild forms of sleep apnea, surgical, laser or radiofrequency interventions on the soft palate and uvula are effective. An important aspect of treatment is the prompt elimination of chronic obstruction of nasal breathing. With a sharp hypertrophy of the tonsils, tonsillectomy is indicated. It is possible to use snoring sprays (Sleepex, Silence) and nasal strips to improve nasal breathing Breeze Wright.
If the patient has a moderate or severe sleep apnea , then CPAP therapy is used for treatment – a method of non-invasive assisted ventilation of the lungs with constant positive pressure during night sleep. On the first night of treatment, the patient eliminates snoring and sleep apnea, normalizes blood oxygen saturation, and improves the quality of sleep. For maximum effect, treatment should be done regularly at home.
Currently, improved CPAP devices Prisma Line from the new line of Weinmann – Loewenstein (Germany) have been developed . Their use allows the most effective and comfortable treatment of the entire spectrum of respiratory disorders in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Especially for the convenience of patients, an educational film DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME was created . It covers in detail all the main issues that arise during CPAP therapy.
Interview with a patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. CPAP therapy and its positive effects, changes in the patient’s well-being, plans for further treatment.