Movement disorders during sleep

Restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Ekbom K. – 1945 – the clinical description of
RLS is a condition characterized by “unpleasant” sensations in the legs, completely or partially disappearing only at the moment of movement. The need for movement is irresistible. “Unpleasant” sensations are described by patients as “discomfort”, “pain”, “stretching”, “twitching”, “tingling”, “tingling”, “tingling”, “itching”, “shuddering”.

5% to 15%
Among children under 10 years of age – 18% The
peak incidence occurs in middle age.

In the clinical picture, it is noted (according to the international group for the study of RLS – Walter et . All . 1995):

  1. The need to move the limbs, accompanied by discomfort in the legs.
  2. Motor restlessness.
  3. Worsening of symptoms during sleep, with periods of increased motor activity.
  4. Worse symptoms in the evening or at night.
  5. Sleep disturbances and their consequences while awake (difficulty falling asleep, shallow sleep, daytime sleepiness, increased fatigue).
  6. Involuntary periodic limb movements during sleep and wakefulness are considered in the framework of the syndrome of periodic limb movements.

Mild – episodic disorders.
Average – less than twice a week, sleep disturbances, worsening daytime wakefulness.
Severe – three or more episodes per week with disturbances in nighttime sleep and a significant deterioration in daytime state.

Duration of violations:
Acute – less than two weeks.
Subacute – from two weeks to three months.
Chronic – from three months or more.
Gender connection: women suffer more.

Causes of Secondary RLS
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Acute and Chronic Renal Failure, Parkinsonism, Uremia, Pregnancy, Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Polyneuropathy, Anemia, Depression, Anxiety, Fibromyalgia Syndrome , Caffeinism , Iatrogenic Effects.

RLS leads to the development of:
Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia , Social maladjustment.

Periodic Limb Movements Syndrome (PMS)
PMS is a condition characterized by episodes of repetitive, stereotypical leg movements consisting of extension of the thumb in combination with flexion of the knee and sometimes hip, usually during a night’s sleep.

In the clinical picture of the SPDK, the following are noted:

  1. Complaints about sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness.
  2. Repetitive, stereotypical leg movements are usually not noticed by patients.

Prevalence of SPDK:
Among people over 60 years old – 34%
Among patients with insomnia – from 1 to 15%
Etiology: unknown.

To clarify the diagnosis of movement disorders during sleep, it is necessary to conduct nightly polysomnography .

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